The assessment, management and treatment of mood disorders require careful observation of the signs and symptoms already in all disease states. Affective disorders are currently classified into well-defined diagnostic categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and in International Classification of Diseases – 11th Version (ICD-11).However, the complex symptom system that accompanies these disorders often poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. The risk of a superficial clinical examination is to focus only on some aspects of the mood disorder. Indeed, there is often a tendency to focus on the main symptoms of mood, depression and euphoria, excluding the wide range of phenomena that would lead to a more in-depth diagnosis such as, for example, bipolar disorder or mixed states (Tavormina 2021). In many cases, the “simple” depressive episode represents only a phase of the broader “bipolar mood spectrum”


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